PDF | On Jan 1, , C. H. M. Versteegh and others published Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics (Vol. II). Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and volwarmdilanmi.cf Michael C A Macdonald. M. Macdonald. For the best experience, open this PDF portfolio in Acrobat X or. In Arabic, gender differentiation is based upon grammatical criteria languages, both ancient and modern, namely whether their verbal inferred from the use of a certain linguistic cate- gory or type of . volwarmdilanmi.cf Levinson.

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Languages of the World

At the beginning of the 20th century there still were different Christian dialects in different quarters, but since then these divisions have blurred Behnstedt The division between two different dialect types in Bahrain is parallel with the earlier devel- opment in Lower Iraq.

Although representing the Shi'i-Sunni split, it is in fact a result of two phases of settlement: the Shi'i population speak the old rural Bahama dialect, which displays typical sedentary devices, whereas the Sunni newcomers speak a dialect of the 'AnazI Bedouin type Holes In North Africa the Jewish Arabic dialects are of urban type and represent the first phase of Arab settlement.

In Oran and some towns in the region of Algiers, the Jewish dialects represent the seden- tary, and the Muslim dialects the Bedouin type. As pointed out by Blanc 16 , the parallel with the distribution of the qaltu vs. Here, as in all other cases of dialect differences along the lines of reli- gious affiliation, the differences - besides reli- gious-cultural technical terms - can mainly be attributed to settlement history.

Classification of dialects on the Eastern-Western boundary 7. It is therefore obvious that the aktibhtiktib vs. In a strictly synchronic classification two alternative solu- tions may be applied: these dialects might be defined as part of a transitional area between the dialects: classification Egyptian and the magribi dialects, or the ques- tion of their belonging to either of them might be solved with reference to the classificatory weight of different isoglosses. However, no satisfactory theory has as yet been created which would give adequate tools for measurement.

But as soon as the question is asked, whether these oasis dialects basically belong to the sphere of Egyptian dialects displaying adstrate features of magribi type, or vice versa, diachronic and extralinguistic criteria will be involved. Since there is a gap of one thousand years in our knowledge of the history of the oases and of the dialects spoken in them, different conclusions can be drawn. Woidich regards the dialects of the two oases as isolated and peripheral dialects belonging to the greater Egyptian dialect area, with greatest resemblance to the dialects spoken in Fayyum and the province of BanI Swef, while the Western traits are best explained as results of dialect contact Behnstedt , however, points out that the short demonstrative pronouns and the forms of the verbs kal and xad are well attested Western forms from al-Andalus, and also the syllable structure in al-Farafira can be inter- preted as retention of a very conservative magribi feature, known from the dialect of al- Andalus.

One may also ask why the contrast zawz vs. According to Behnstedt, the first Arab immigrants to the oases may very well have been magribi tribes, perhaps speaking a dialect resembling the Andalusian type. Arabic arrived there from southern Egypt in the 14th century at the latest. In the question of the division of Arabic into Western and Eastern groups, this region is of interest because immigrants from east and west may have met here.

This may be reflected by the occurrence of both the Eastern b aktub-naktub and the Western baktub-nak- tubu imperfect patterns. However, since one and the same speaker will vary across the different paradigms, they cannot be regarded as two isoglosses but rather as variants of a single vari- able Owens , De-Bedouinization, sedentarization, and Bedouinization developments The dialects spoken in the Arabian Peninsula, except its southwestern parts, are Bedouin or former Bedouin dialects.

In sedentary environ- ments the Bedouin dialects tend to adopt reduc- tional and innovative traits, plausibly as results of increased dialect contact.

Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Volume 4

In a corresponding way, the Arabic dialects of the Gulf area, which are a relatively recent off- shoot of the 'AnazT dialect group, during only two centuries of sedentarization have adopted considerable reductional changes, such as elimi- nation of the internal passive, the indefinite marker -in, and, mostly, gender distinction in plural forms of finite verbs and personal pro- nouns. An innovation typical of sedentary dialects is the future and volitive marker bi-. These dialects have thus drawn away from their original central Arabian cAnazi dialects Ingham ; Holes 2ooi:xviii.

In maritime envi- ronments, the vocabulary naturally differs noticeably from the one mirroring the tradi- tional nomadic culture. Even the rhythm and intonation patterns are at the present time quite different from the dialects of the 'AnazT type Johnstone The Mesopotamian gilit dialects exhibit similar developments in the reductional and innovatory direction. The rural gilit dialects have still pre- served several prominent features of Bedouin type, contrasting with the urban gilit dialects.

In the Muslim dialect of Baghdad the sedentary-type development has advanced much more, obvi- ously under influence from the old sedentary qdltu dialects. Typical sedentary traits, such as the use of the verb modifiers gd'ed, da-, and rdhlrah with the imperfect, d e - with the imperative, have been adopted. During the Ottoman period, in particular, new Bedouin tribes settled down in the neighborhood of towns and villages lying near the fringes of the Syrian Desert.

One of the results was a progres- sive Bedouinization of the old sedentary dialects in these areas. Examples of this development are the qdltu dialects of the Euphrates group and the few sedentary dialects spoken to the east of the Jordan Blanc ; Jastrow ; Palva According to Borg's definition , Cypriot Arabic "represents a now superstratally modified vari- ety of a dialectal prototype antedating the present areal configuration obtaining among Arabic-speaking sedentaries in this region".

A prominent typological feature which Cypriot Arabic shares with northern Syrian dialects is the vocalically conditioned 'imdla Borg ; Behnstedt , maps Cypriot Arabic also shares a number of salient traits with the southeastern branch of the Ana- tolian qdltu dialects, among them, -n in the suf- fixed personal pronoun of the 2nd and 3rd pers. An interesting trait is the partial retention of ''ra'd, which attests its use in Syrian Arabic dur- ing the first Islamic centuries.

Bibliographical references Abboud, Peter F. Bulletin of the School of Oriental and African Studies Abu-Haidar, Farida. Christian Arabic of Baghdad. Wiesbaden: O. Peuplement et arahisation au Maghreb occidental: Dialectologie et histoire. Madrid and Saragossa: Casa de Velazquez. Behnstedt, Peter. Die nordjemenitischen Dia- lekte. Wiesbaden: L. Zeit- schrift fur Arabische Linguistik Der arabische Dialekt von Soukbne Syrien. Phonologie, Morphologie, Syntax. Sprtéléchargementlas von Syrien: Kartenband: Beiheft.

Aguade a. Die agyptisch-arabischen Dialekte. Dialektatlas von Agypten. Blanc, Haim. Communal dialects in Baghdad. Cambridge, Mass. Borg, Alexander. Cypriot Arabic. Wiesbaden: F. Boucherit, Aziza. L'arabe parle a Alger: Aspects sociolinguistiques et enonciatifs. Paris and Louvain: Peeters. Cantineau, Jean.

Bulletin de la Societe de Linguistique de Paris Les parlers arabes du Hordn. Paris: Klincksieck. Cohen, David. Etudes de linguistique semitique et arabe.

Paris: Mouton. Le parler arabe des juifs de Tunis.

Etude linguistique. The Hague and Paris: Mouton. Fischer, Wolfdietrich and Otto Jastrow eds. Handbuch der arabischen Dialekte. Grand'Henry, Jacques. Les parlers arabes de la region du Mzdb Sahara algerien. Holes, Clive.

Dialect, culture, and society in Eastern Arabia. Ingham, Bruce. North east Arabian dialects. London and Boston: Kegan Paul International.

Peter Behnstedt and Manfred Woidich

Najdi Arabic: Central Arabian. Amster- dam and Philadelphia: J. Iraqui-Sinaceur, Zakia. Jastrow, Otto. Die mesopotamisch-arabischen qaltu-Dialekte. Phonologie und Morphologie. Approaches to Arabic dialects: A collection of articles presented to Manfred Woidich on the occasion of his sixtieth birthday, ed. Like Greek and Albanian, the Armenian branch has just one language, with a major division between Eastern and Western dialects.

The standard language of Armenia is in the Eastern Armenian group, which also includes the dialects of Armenian communities in Iran, Russia, Georgia, and their environs. Texts from Armenian Cilicia from the 11th to the 14th centuries ce are the first to show a differentiated Western dialect.

Armenian is of special interest to linguists because of retentions from Indo-European, notably all seven of its noun cases and the irregular retention of initial laryngeals. These three are traditionally grouped into a branch called Finno-Ugric.

See Salminen for arguments. The remaining languages of Uralic are smaller ones found in northern parts of Europe and Asia.

This relatively small region may have up to around 40 highly diverse languages, falling into three families, Nakho-Dagestanian, Abkhazo-Adyghean, and Kartvelian. The most important Nakho-Dagestanian language is Chechen. Abkhaz-Adyghean is made up of Abkhaz and Adyghe and is best known among linguists for systems with 60 or more contrasting consonants but very few vowels.

The major Kartvelian language is Georgian, with four million speakers. Its history in this location is widely thought to go back several millennia, antedating the more recent Indo-European migrations to the region.

There have attempts to identify Basque with a wide variety of groups, including Kartvelian, Afro-Asiatic, and Iberian, but without attracting much support. The current count exceeds 2, languages, grouped into just a few families. Many other questions still remain open. For example, Greenberg recognized Khoisan as a family, but later scholars have tended to set a higher bar for establishing genetic relationships, leading most to reject it as a family and to defer judgment on particular groupings into branches.

The unity of Nilo-Saharan is also called into question, and despite detailed comparative work by Bender — and Ehret , some reject Nilo-Saharan as a valid genetic unit. For Niger-Congo, the status of some member branches—Kordofanian, Mande, Dogon, and Ijoid—has been challenged, though Niger-Congo itself is widely recognized as a valid family.

The Afro-Asiatic family is well established, though there are debates about subgrouping. For example, do Semitic, Berber, and Cushitic together form a separate branch, as Bender — contends? Within Niger-Congo, there are a number of unanswered questions, many revolving around the constituency of its most complex branch, Benue-Congo, which uncontroversially includes all the Bantu languages and many more.

For details and references, see Bendor-Samuel and Hartell and the references in Nordhoff et al. The Semitic branch has 78 languages, including Arabic, the first language of up to million throughout North Africa and widely spoken in the Middle East. Other important Semitic languages are Hebrew, which shares official status in Israel with Arabic, and several Ethiopic languages. Amharic, the official language of Ethiopia and the first language of 21 million, is a South Ethiopic language.

In the North Ethiopic branch is Tigrigna, an official language of Eritrea spoken by 7 million. The term Afro-Asiatic was used by Joseph Greenberg to replace the designation Hamito-Semitic, which posited a division between the Semitic branch named for Biblical figure Shem and a putative branch named for Biblical figure Ham.

Greenberg argued that extraneous factors like these had no place in language classification, which should be based solely on linguistic data. Comparing languages from the different groups classed as Hamitic, Greenberg concluded that the evidence did not support their grouping into a single branch.

The Berber branch of Afro-Asiatic is spoken in the foothills of the Atlas Mountain in Morocco and Algeria and, spottily, in neighboring countries. Cushitic gets its name from Cush, the son of Ham. The several dozen languages of this group are spoken mainly in Ethiopia and Somalia, with a few in Kenya and Tanzania. Chadic languages are mainly spoken in the countries surrounding Lake Chad and are dominant in northern Nigeria, numbering close to in all.

By far the most widely spoken is Hausa, with 25 million native speakers. The languages of the Omotic branch, numbering over two dozen, are all spoken in southwestern Ethiopia. The Egyptian branch, thanks to hieroglyphs, can be traced back before 3, bce. Ancient Egyptian was the ancestor of Coptic, spoken in Egypt, but over time was replaced by Arabic until Coptic died out, roughly years ago.

Since then Coptic has survived as a liturgical language.


For a relatively small family, they are quite diverse typologically, leaving some doubt as to whether the Nilotic and Saharan branches really deserve to be grouped into a family. Reflecting this, Glottolog divides them into two separate families, Nilotic and Saharan.

Ideas about the respective genetic affiliations of well-known groups within Niger-Congo have changed substantially over the last half-century. This discovery—which took ten years before gaining the wide acceptance it has today—not only challenged earlier assumptions about linguistic classification but also opened the door to hypotheses about Bantu origins.

The currently accepted view is that Bantu originated in southeastern Nigeria and expanded east and south from there. This is the case with Khoisan, which is generally not recognized as an established family but as a set of 27 languages—some with just a handful of speakers—that are likely not to belong to the other three established families of African languages. Ermisch presents what is known, along with the residual problems. For more on Malayo-Polynesian, see the subsection on Austronesian in the section on Oceania.

The downside is that the contact situation has made it difficult to classify genetic relationships with certainty in some important cases. This section describes the Indo-European languages of Asia.

Encyclopedia of Arabic Language and Linguistics, Volume 3

The Tocharian branch became extinct with the expansion of Turkic Uyghur tribes in the 9th century ce. Tocharian manuscripts from a few centuries prior to extinction, uncovered in the early 20th century, provided information that led scholars to reassess key assumptions about Proto-Indo-European and its descendants.

Anatolian inscriptions from a much earlier era, about two millennia prior, similarly reshaped what had been known. Gamkrelidze and Ivanov offer a highly readable synthesis and summary of research presented in Gamkrelidze and Ivanov Among the over two hundred Indo-Aryan languages, Hindi and Urdu are official languages of India and Pakistan, respectively, and many consider them dialects of a single language.

Hindustani is the language once promoted by Gandhi and the Indian National Congress as a tool of national unity.

Reference and Bibliographies -- hard copies/pdf

For the Hindustani controversy, see Kachru The largest language of the Iranian component of Indo-Iranian is Persian, with estimates exceeding 50 million native speakers in Iran. Written records of Old Persian go back to the 6th century bce.

Other important languages in the Iranian branch are Pashto, mainly spoken in Afghanistan and Pakistan, and Kurdish, mainly spoken in Turkey, Iraq, and Iran. Despite the vastness of this area, the languages themselves are typologically quite similar: agglutinative, with vowel harmony involving both backness and rounding. Mongolian, with over six million speakers, is by far the largest language in the family and the official language both of Mongolia and of the Inner Mongolian Autonomous Region of China.

That includes Manchu, the language of the founders of the Qing Dynasty, which ruled China for nearly three centuries up to The edition of Ethnologue lists only 20 speakers for Manchu, though over ten million are ethnically Manchu.

Add to Cart. Review Quotes "I find the EALL a valuable and authoritative reference tool that reaches out to a wide range of readership. Its comprehensive scope, lucid writing style and manageable design and layout make the EALL useful, initially and foremost, to linguists but also to scholars from various fields that have connections to Arabic language and linguistics, as well as to advanced students. Modern Standard Arabic Lexicography: Bilingual Dictionaries Lexicography: Classical Arabic Lexicography:The Afro-Asiatic family is well established, though there are debates about subgrouping.

Paris: Adrian Maisonneuve.

In a strictly synchronic classification two alternative solu- tions may be applied: these dialects might be defined as part of a transitional area between the dialects: classification Egyptian and the magribi dialects, or the ques- tion of their belonging to either of them might be solved with reference to the classificatory weight of different isoglosses.

In a contrastive analysis on the basis of 37 isoglosses, Maltese shared 25 with the urban pre-Hilali magribi dialects Vanhove For a relatively small family, they are quite diverse typologically, leaving some doubt as to whether the Nilotic and Saharan branches really deserve to be grouped into a family.

Phonologie, Morphologie, Syntax.

Tibeto-Burman, with well over languages, is especially problematic because of the inaccessibility of many languages in the Himalayas, not to mention that van Driem , p.

When systematic classifications based on well-defined criteria are aimed at, there is more than one choice for the approach.

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