SQL SERVER 2012 INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS PDF

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Sql Server 2012 Interview Questions And Answers Pdf

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Top 50 Sql Server Dba Interview Questions And Answers volwarmdilanmi.cf you to crack your interview and to achieve your goal as an SQL Server volwarmdilanmi.cf Offers. Question.1 Which TCP/IP port does SQL Server run on? How can it be changed? Answer: SQL Server runs on port It can be changed from the Network. SQL Interview Questions with Answers volwarmdilanmi.cf . In a table scan SQL. Server examines every row in the table to satisfy the query results.

What is the difference between a Navigational database and a Relational database? Each value was associated with another through the use of a parent, most of the time with no other direct way to access the data. Relational Databases on the other hand use values common to multiple tables to establish a unique key — making sure that they are talking on the same page so that there are many, many ways to get to the same place.

To put it another way, if you were trying to get from point A to point B, a navigational database would have one specific path to get there — via a freeway. A relational database on the other hand would have options for taking the freeway, a back road, a boat, a plane, a bus and sometimes a rocket — provided that each of those methods were set up correctly to talk to each other. Most modern databases use the relational database model.

Why do most database types not talk to each other? In a word: money. In three words: a lotttta money. Different database vendors spend a huge amount of research time trying to find ways to give them a leg up on the competition; whether that may be by performance, storage capacity, longevity, reliability, scalability, the list goes on and on. As a result, trying to be compatible and backwards engineer every single feature of a particular database type is difficult in the extreme before you even get to the patent violations.

Most databases can be simplified down to filetypes like. That being said however, there would be a lot lost in translation without help from higher up. What is a Frontend? In essence a management program, a frontend allows admins to be able to view and modify high level database functions without the need to use the command line for every single thing.

This can be extremely useful not only for efficiency, but also for safety, as it can prevent accidental data modification. Level 2: The Researcher You now can navigate a database backend at will, and depending on the rest of your skill sets, can access things that may or may not have you locked up in a federal penitentiary. However, when someone comes asking you for a question, you are the person they rely on for answers fast and accurately. Well when two tables love each other very much…not that much happens actually.

However when you need to search across multiple tables simultaneously, a join can help make that happen. For example, if you were searching for information on a particular product and one table has the description while the other has pricing information, you can use a join to search across both tables simultaneously using a single query.

What is a foreign key? When using a join or other type of query that goes across multiple tables, it can sometimes be difficult to make sure they are talking on the same page. A primary key can help with this, but sometimes this is impractical, and thus you need a secondary value that is consistent across multiple tables.

For example, say that in a series of tables for product listings you have your primary key assigned to an auto-increment ID based on when the product was entered a typical setup , and then none of these rows are able to line up with their counterparts in other tables. So if you have one table for product listings, another for price information, another for reviews, etc. However, if you know for a certainty that your part numbers for these products are going to be unique values, you can use that as a foreign key and suddenly everything lines up all nice and neat.

This does not mean it still could not be the primary key for that particular table as well, it just means it has a reference that can be looked to from another point of view. What is SQL Injection? For instance, say that you are on an online banking website. But what if you want to see the listing of everybody else that banks at this particular location?

What is input sterilization? One of the main answers to SQL Injection, input sterilization allows the database to selectively ignore data coming in from an input field and strip out non-required data.

For example, if a field is expecting only a numeric value, there is no need for letters or symbols to be present in the user input.

Therefore, these values can be safely ignored but still keep the functionality of the form intact. While not an end-all beat-all, it goes a long way to helping mitigate attacks on this vector.

That efficiency depends greatly on its application however, and many times you will see NoSQL used in Big Data crunching and analysis applications that require real-time feedback. Big Data is essentially looking at the forest for the forest instead of the trees.

An individual person is a unique entity with a specific set of actions and reasons for why they do what they do. A good example of this was published in the New York Times : Walmart discovered that just prior to a major storm, there was a run on the usual items such as bottled water, batteries and flashlights — but also strawberry pop tarts. This pattern was consistent across the board, so they were able to bundle these items together in certain parts of the store and increase profits.

SQL SERVER INTERVIEW QUESTIONS AND ANSWERS PDF _ FRESHERS AND EXPERIENCED ~ INTERVIEW QUESTIONS PDF

site Suggestions, Google Analytics and other entities that run off of Big Data are huge moneymakers for their respective entities for being able to consistently give relatively accurate recommendations to users based on their past interests or downloads.

A flatfile is a catch-all term used for concepts like Comma Separated Values.

While there are a lot of different ways to create such a file, they all share ideas that they can be created and manipulated easily and without necessarily requiring a standard database application.

These can also be used to transfer data from system to system due to their lightweight status. In some cases, these have been replaced by XML files, however XML can when compared to certain kinds of flatfiles, be very large.

How would I do this? The easy answer would be to contact Microsoft Tech Support and bring your checkbook. A more difficult answer would be to bring it down to a. This is not saying that this would work in all cases, but it is at least an option. When crafting a query, or using programming to display data in certain ways depending on the values being returned, you may want to think that these can be used interchangeably. There is one big difference, however: equal means equal.

LIKE, however, can be used with a number of different wildcard mechanics, allowing you to be a bit more flexible in your rules.

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What is a Null Value? A Null Value is an absence of data. This one is a bit misleading sometimes, because depending on who you ask, it can be considered many possible things. If a column allows for null values, and no value is submitted, then it allows it to be Null.

Being able to generate data and then know that it is safe for future use is vital, since you never know when some scrap of information might be useful in your next caper project. While forms can take many…forms…, the most common uses are through either a dedicated application or through the use of an HTML form. DROP removes a table from a database or a database from a server. A very dangerous command indeed, it is only to be used in situations that absolutely require it, as unless you have a backup of it handy, there is no coming back from this.

The main additions Microsoft made to the main branch of SQL involve the addition of procedures or routines — scripts essentially — that can be run under certain criteria. However, because of the nature in how they were developed, trying to move data from one to the other involves quite a bit of work.

Top 50 collection of articles on SQL interview questions

The main differences deal with how they multi-task and how they lock elements when they are in use. For example, say that you were on site and were about to move. As a result, you would want to adjust your mailing address so that you actually got your stuff.

You would therefore go into your settings and it would show you your current address. Modifying this address and then submitting the form would update your address based on your particular user profile. Why do database servers benefit from a lot of memory, and why do bit operating systems help in this regard? Database servers like to cache as much data as possible when they are reading it a lot.

Storing this information in active memory is a lot faster than trying to find it again from the hard disk or other media. What are the advantages of user defined functions over stored procedures in Sql Server? In case of table valued functions, the returned table. Once after the rows are committed or rolled back no need to use No Lock. For example. Unique Identifier datatype mainly used for primary key columns of the tables or any other columns which need to have unique Ids.

Pivot table automatically count, sort and total the data in a table or spreadsheet and used to create a separate table for displaying summarized data. Alternate Key — To identity a row uniquely we can have multiple keys one of them is called primary key and rest of them are called alternate keys. Candidate Key — Set of fields or columns which are uniquely identified in a row and they constitute candidate keys.

Composite Key — One key formed by combining at least two or more columns or fields. Below are list of Sql statements using Drop keyword. A subquery is a query which can be nested inside a main query like Select, Update, Insert or Delete statements.

This can be used when expression is allowed. Properties of subquery can be defined as A sub query should not have order by clause A subquery should be placed in the right hand side of the comparison operator of the main query A subquery should be enclosed in parenthesis because it needs to be executed first before the main query More than one subquery can be included. There are 3 kinds of subquery — The query which returns only one row is Single row subquery Which returns multiple rows is multiple row subquery Which returns multiple columns to the main query is multiple column subqueries.

Beside that subquery returns, the Chief query will be performed. Scheduled jobs are practiced to automate methods that can be operated on a cataloged event at a constant interval. This scheduling of jobs benefits to decrease human interference throughout night time and feed can be produced at an appropriate time. A user can further order the jobs in which it allows to be produced.

This function is used to return a non-null from more than one column in the arguments. A Follow the rules of DB tuning we have to: What are statistics, under what circumstances they go out of date, how do you update them? A Statistics determine the selectivity of the indexes.

If an indexed column has unique values then the selectivity of that index is more, as opposed to an index with non-unique values. Query optimizer uses these indexes in determining whether to choose an index or not while executing a query. Some situations under which you should update statistics: If there is significant change in the key values in the index If a large amount of data in an indexed column has been added, changed, or removed that is, if the distribution of key values has changed , or the table has been truncated using the TRUNCATE TABLE statement and then repopulated Database is upgraded from a previous version Q Could you please some items which you may see in an execution plan indicating the query is not optimized.

An Active — Passive cluster is a failover cluster configured in a way that only one cluster node is active at any given time. An Active — Active cluster is a failover cluster configured in a way that both the cluster nodes are active at any given point of time. That is, one Instance of SQL Server is running on each of the nodes always; when one of the nodes has a failure, both the Instances run on the only one node until the failed node is brought up after fixing the issue that caused the node failure.

The instance is then failed over back to its designated node. Primarily, recovery model is chosen keeping in view the amount of data loss one can afford to. If one expects to have minimal or no data loss, choosing the Full recovery model is a good choice.

Depending on the recovery model of a database, the behavior of database log file changes. I would recommend you read more material on log backups and log file behavior and so on to understand in depth. Clustered Index: Therefore table may have only one clustered index. Non-Clustered Index: The leaf nodes of a non-clustered index does not consists of the data pages.

What are the different Authentication modes in SQL Server and how can you change authentication mode? When would you use it? Explain primary key in Sql Server? Explain foreign key in Sql Server? List out the different types of locks available in Sql Server? What is recursive stored procedure in Sql Server?

How the authentication mode can be changed? Peer-to Peer Replication Database Mirroring Explain Sql server authentication modes? Explain Indexing and what are the advantages of it? Why to use Cursor in Sql Server?

List all types of constraints in Sql Server?

Top 50 Sql Server Dba Interview Questions And Answers Pdf

What are the differences between Union, Intersect and Minus operators? Explain about Link Server in Sql Server? What are the significance of master, tempdb and model databases?

Explain about unique identifier datatype in Sql Server? Can SQL servers link to other servers? What is subquery and its properties? What are the kinds of subquery? What is SQL server agent? What are scheduled tasks in SQL Server?In essence a management program, a frontend allows admins to be able to view and modify high level database functions without the need to use the command line for every single thing.

What is a foreign key? Today, it is now possible for a user with no knowledge of database programming to create a database-driven website in under 3 minutes I timed it , and manipulate it easier than it is to get around in the newer versions of a word processor that shall remain nameless. What is a covered Index?

What are the different types of locks?

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