File:DeLanda Manuel A Thousand Years of Nonlinear volwarmdilanmi.cf volwarmdilanmi.cf (file. File:DeLanda Manuel A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History no volwarmdilanmi.cf Redirect page. Jump to: navigation, search. #REDIRECT File:DeLanda Manuel A . The title of this book is an outline of De Landa s agenda. He wants to convey his philosophical approach to history using examples chosen from the last 1, years of human history. Within each section De Landa illustrates his approach with examples from the (approximately) last.

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A Thousand Years of Non-Linear History – Part II: Flesh and Genes [email protected] volwarmdilanmi.cf / volwarmdilanmi.cf(Chap2).pdf. Manuel de Landa - A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History - Free download as PDF File .pdf) or view presentation slides online. DeLanda_A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History - Ebook download as PDF File .pdf), Text File .txt) or read book online.

For example, these spaces may contain closed loops technically called "limit cycles" or "periodic attractors". In this case the several possible physical instantiations of this space will all display isomorphic behavior: an endogenously generated tendency to oscillate in a stable way. Whether one is dealing with a socio- technological structure such as a radio transmitter or a radar machine , a biological one a cyclic metabolism , or a physical one a convection cell in the atmosphere , it is one and the same immanent resource that is involved in their different oscillating behavior.

Deleuze calls this ability of topological forms to give rise to many different physical instantiations, a process of "divergent actualization", taking the idea from French philosopher Henri Bergson who, at the turn of the century, wrote a series of texts where he criticized the inability of the science of his time to think the new, the truly novel.

The first obstacle was, according to Bergson, a mechanical and linear view of causality and the rigid determinism that it implied. Clearly, if all the future is already given in the past, if the future is merely that modality of time where previously determined possibilities become realized, then true innovation is impossible. To avoid this mistake, he thought, we must struggle to model the future as truly open ended, and the past and the present as pregnant not only with possibilities which become real, but with virtualities which become actual.

The distinction between the possible and the real assumes a set of predefined forms or essences which acquire physical reality as material forms that resemble them. From the morphogenetic point of view, realizing a possibility does not add anything to a predefined form, except reality. The distinction between the virtual and the actual, on the other hand, does not involve resemblance of any kind e.

As Deleuze writes, "Actualization breaks with resemblance as a process no less than it does with identity as a principle. In this sense, actualization or differenciation is always a genuine creation. By concentrating on the final, extensive form achieved once the intensive process is finished, thermodynamics failed to see that, before the differences in intensity are canceled, the final form or more exactly, its topological counterpart is already there, guiding or acting as an attractor for the morphogenetic process.

In other words, topological attractors have a perfectly real existence, as virtual entities, even before a given geometrical form becomes actual. And this simply emphasizes Deleuze ontological attitude towards the world: he is not only a realist regarding the actual, but also a realist towards the virtual. This realm of virtual entities capable of divergent actualization are only one of the several immanent resources which insure the openness of the future.

I will discuss in a moment other forms of material creativity behind the open-ended evolution of the world, but before doing that I would like to address one aspect of virtual forms of the attractor type that may seem paradoxical in the context of this discussion.

One would think that open- endedness is a concept intrinsically opposed to determinism, and hence that the creative potential of matter derives from a connection with chance.

And yet the processes involved in spatio-temporal dynamisms governed by attractors are completely deterministic. The most familiar examples of nonlinear causality are those causal loops known as "feedback loops", which may involve mutually stabilizing causes, as in the negative feedback process exemplified by the thermostat, or mutually intensifying causes, as in the positive feedback process illustrated by explosions or spiraling arms races.

These forms of circular causality, in which the effects react back on their causes, in turn, are one condition for the existence of forms of determinism attractors which are local and multiple, instead of global and unique. The other condition is a flow of matter-energy moving in and out of the physical process in question. These "advanced" determinisms may be static yet multiple and hence local, since a system can switch between alternative destinies but also dynamic, allowing for simple stable cycles or for complex forms of quasi- periodic behavior, as in deterministic chaos.

On the other hand, it is important to emphasize that these deterministic processes are only one resource matter and energy have at their disposal. There is another, less deterministic, process which is even more intimately connected with the emergence of novelty keeping the world from closing: the spontaneous formation of "machinic assemblages" of diverse elements.

Deleuze and Guattari introduce the notion of "consistency" or "self-consistency" to designate this morphogenetic process which generates new structures without homogenizing the components and without submitting them to hierarchical control, or in other words, without imposing on them a hylomorphic model. What we term machinic is precisely this synthesis of heterogeneities as such. Metallurgy is the consciousness or thought of the matter-flow, and metal the correlate of this consciousness.

As expressed in panmetallism, metal is coextensive to the whole of matter, and the whole of matter to metallurgy. Even the waters, the grasses and varieties of wood, the animals are populated by salts or mineral elements. Not everything is metal, but metal is everywhere. The machinic phylum is metallurgical, or at least has a metallic head, as its itinerant probe-head or guidance device. For the blacksmith "it is not a question of imposing a form upon matter but of elaborating an increasingly rich and consistent material, the better to tap increasingly intense forces.

His task is less that of realizing previously defined possibilities than actualizing virtualities along divergent lines. But, again, it would be a mistake to think that the relevance of metals for the question of innovation is solely due to human intervention.

To see this we need to explain an obscure phrase in the quote above. What does it mean to say that "the machinic phylum has a metallic probe-head"? The key idea here is to think of metals as being the most powerful catalysts in the planet. The only exception being organic enzymes, but these have been evolved to achieve that potency. A catalyst is a substance capable of accelerating or decelerating a chemical reaction, without itself being changed in the process. That is, a catalyst intervenes in reality, recognizes specific targets, triggers effects, causes encounters that would not have taken place without it, and yet it is not consumed or permanently changed in these interactions, so that it can go on triggering effects elsewhere.

We can imagine our planet, before living creatures appeared on its surface, as populated by metallic particles which catalyzed reactions as they flowed through the Earth, in a sense allowing the planet to "explore" a space of possible chemical combinations, that is, allowing the planet to blindly grope its way around this space, eventually stumbling upon proto-living creatures, which as many scientists now agree, were probably autocatalytic loops of materials, that is, proto-metabolisms.

It is becoming increasingly clear that a crucial ingredient for the emergence of innovation at any level of reality is the "combinatorial productivity" of the elements at the respective sub-level, that is, at the level of the components of the structures in question. Not all components have the same "productivity". For example, elementary particles have a relatively low productivity, yielding only 92 possible atoms in this planet, although we can artificially stabilize a few more trans-uranic elements, beginning with Plutonium in World War II.

However, when we move to the next higher level, the assembly of molecules out of atoms, the number of combinations becomes immense, essentially unsurveyable. Similarly, the number of cell types on Earth nerve, muscle, bone etc.

As physicist George Kampis has remarked, "the notion of immensity translates as irreducible variety of the component-types This kind of immensity is an immediately complexity- related property, for it is about variety and heterogeneity, and not simply as numerousness.

Another key element are processes which allow heterogeneous elements to come together, that is, processes which allow the articulation of the diverse as such. What makes a material increasingly rich is the same as what holds heterogeneities together without their ceasing to be heterogeneous. The a lternating u se of the trade wi n d s o n the outward l eg. A s t h is k n owledge s p read to ot h e r metropolises. The sol utio n was to n avigate away fro m t hat wi n d.

To t h e extent t h at t h ese basic i n sights a re co rrect. Seco n d. Mea nwh i le. H ow eve r. I n t h e model proposed by Deleuze and Guattari. As t h is percolating solution crystallizes. T h is operation consists in cementing the sorted components together into a new entity with emergent properties of its own. Geologists have discovered one such mechanism: Since t h ere is feedback between pebble properties and flow properties.

Some are so small t h ey dissolve in the water. In t h e course of t h i s process. Rivers transport rocky materials from t h eir point of origin an eroding mountain to the bottom of the ocean. T h is second operation is carried out by certain substances dissolved in water such as silica or hematite. B1 Thus. This second operation is performed by "reproductive isolation": I n one model. We talk of "social strata" whenever a given society presents a variety of differentiated roles to which individuals are denied eq u al access.

Fu rthermore. While role differentiation may be a spontaneous effect of an intensification in the flow of energy through society e. For exa m ple. And all t h i s without metaphor. T h e meshwork has n ow grow n. I n the case of a utocatalytic l oops. F i rst. Symbiotic relations can a ct as i nte rca l a ry e l eme nts. A speci es or m o re p recise ly. Mo reov e r. I f t h ese tran saction costs a re too h ig h. As we h ave re peated ly noted.

I n s m a l l-town ma rkets. One poss i b l e an swe r i s that stratified st ructu res i n volve the s i m p le st fo rm of causal rela tions. The classic exa m p l e of negative feed back is the t h ermostat. T h e c a u se-a nd-effect re lati o n. B ut that is too simple a fo rmula to describe the real ities which always exhi bit a blend of a l l the mechan isms of coo rd i nati o n.

The eco nomic u n its in ca pital ist societies are mostly busi n ess firms. I n loca l ization t h e h ete roge n e ity betwee n l ocal ities i n creases. N egative fee d back is " d evi atio n-co u nte racti ng. I n i nterweavi ng. U n l i ke the thermostat. N egative feed back. T h e co m bin ato ria l possibilities. T h e degree of ho moge n eity in t h e wo rld has greatly i n crease d. If t his boo k dis plays a clear bias again st l a rge. Mo reover. U nd e r the circu m sta n ces.

Geologica l History: Eve n I n stea d. Both coal and ste a m. Some older citi es. P resto n. B rest. T h i s was the case. Bolto n. Co n seq u ently.

I n the words of H o h e n berg and Lees: The best exam ples of the transforming power of ra pid i n d u strial growth are to be fo u n d in the coal-m i n i ng regio ns.

Since coal was needed to ru n the engines and smelt the o res. Although E u rope u nd e rwent a l o n g pe riod of rel atively slow eco n o m i c growt h afte r There the explosive co nce ntrated effects of.

Lorie nt. B u rn ley. As deman d skyrocketed. The l a rge-sc a l e. Both h i gh ferti l ity and migratio n bred an extreme d e n sity of settlement.

These coal ba sins grew by a kind of regio n a l im plos i o n. H e n otes that. Basical ly. It i nterlocks a series of separate ly re prod u ctive systems i nto a s i ngle. Befo re t h e s.

Lu beck and Cologne. Sti l l.

Their wo rk i n vol ves the laying on of knowi ng h a n d s. Those workers. I n the seve n teenth centu ry. By B rita i n had co nverted to coal as a n i n d ustri al f u e l [and t h is i n volved many cha nges. But this was ce rtai n ly not how the English revo l ution develo ped. I t co nveys the mislead i ng vision of the i n d ustrial revo l ution as a co nsciously p u rsued o bjective. It was n ot moving towa rds any goal. Can we rea l ly be satisfied with t h is i mage of a smoot h ly coord i n ated and eve nly deve l o p i ng combination of sectors.

A n d w h i l e each sepa rate e l ite d i d exercise central ized co ntro l o v e r a give n p rocess th e l ogistics of facto ry town s. But the a dve nt of steam-powered tra n s p o rtatio n re moved t h ese co n stra i nts. Yet B riti s h leaders h i p in steam-d rive n tra n s po rt was soo n s u rpassed by t h e U n ited States.

The I nd u strial R evol utio n. As the rai l roads evolved and expa nded. M o re i m po rtantly. Both o rgan izations erected complicated manageme nt h ierarchies to coord i n ate and control a variety of fu n ctionally d iverse.

Both created s pecial ized staff b u reaus to provide a range of techn ical and logistical su p po rt services. As the ra i l roads assumed these characteristi cs. Both d ivided co rpo rate autho rity and responsibil ity between l i n e and staff age n cies a n d officers a n d t h e n ado pted elabo rate written reg u l atio ns that cod ified t h e relatio n s h i p between t h e m. Coord i nati ng and contro l l i ng the flow of wo rk from o n e manufacturing stage to another therefore became vita l and.

U nder these co nditio ns the engi neeri ng of people assumed an i m portance eq ual to the engineeri ng of materials. Besides the no n. E ntre p re n e u rs were m otivated by the determi n atio n to exe rcise total co ntrol ove r the h u m a n as we l l as the tec h n ical e nviro n m e nt.

The relatio n s h i p betwee n large Su rprisingly. Leve rkusen Baye r i n Germa ny. I n the n i n etee nth centu ry.

A t the h igh e n d of the spectru m [ o f occu patio nal homoge n eity]. The reason is that smal l firms are the major carriers of i n n ovatio n. Mo reove r. At t h at point ot h e r costs. This was even more true in the d ays befo re scientific research contributed much to new tech nology. Gal brait h. L awre nce. To p rotect themselves fro m the wo u nd s a n d bruises of com petiti o n.

It ca n at the same time. Vo ltage. By t h e s. Acco rd i n g to J acobs. O v e r the twenty yea rs or so before the crisis of the 0's. H owev e r. N ew Yo rk. Samuel Mo rse] had n ot. The few who had go ne to col lege [Eli Whitney.

As we o bse rved earl i e r. Of the majo r tec h n ical i n stitutio ns o n ly one. As Peter D rucker writes: Few of the majo r figu res i n 19th ce ntu ry technology received much fo rmal ed ucatio n.

B ut by The study o bse rves t hat: The regi o n 's d e n s e social networks and open labor m a rkets e ncou rage experim e n tation a n d e ntreprene u rs h i p. Silico n Val ley co m pa n i es tend to d raw on local knowled ge a n d relati o n s h i ps to create n ew m a rkets. T h ese special ist firms co mpete i ntensely while at the same t i m e l ea r n i ng from o n e a nother a b o ut changing m a rkets a n d tech nologies.

The bou ndaries between and wit h i n fi rms and between fi rms and loca l i nstitutions thus rema i n fa r more d istinct. Corpo rate h ierarch ies ensured that authority rema i n s centra l ized and i n formatio n flows vertical ly. Route fi rms sought to prese rve their i ndependence by i nte rnalizing a wide ra nge of activities. While Sil ico n Va l l ey prod ucers of the 's were em bedded in.

Atl a nta. I n ot her words. Lisbo n. Amsterd a m. Cities t h at served mostly a s a d m i n istrative ce n te rs. Accord i ng to some a n a lysts. Despite t h e fact t h at m es h wo rk-ge n e rati ng p rocesses a re active tod ay in seve ral pa rts of t h e globe. Biologica l History: F ro m a d i ffe rent pe rspecti ve. Seve r a l d o m esticated species p i gs. M e d ieva l town s were. Toget h e r. M o reove r. I n fecti ous They were t h e re aga i n in September O n ly i n co mmun ities o f seve ra l thousand perso n s.

I n packs e n tered Paris t h rough a breach i n the ra mpa rts or u n guarded gates. A momenta ry i n atte nti o n. T h ese were. Contacts were closer with the domesticated species. I4 M e d ieval cities. I n extreme cases. A few ove rfed rich d o not a lte r the rule. A privileged. We o bviously offered this eighteenth ce ntu ry sum mary without guarantee as to its accu racy: Cereal yields were poor.

For these and other reaso ns fa mine o n ly d isa p peared fro m the West at the close of the eighteenth centu ry. I t could n ot have been otherwise. I t is clear.

Re p l icators bega n not me rely to exist. The re p l i cato rs that su rvived were the o n es that built s u rvival mach i n es for themselves to l ive in. N ow they swarm i n h uge colon ies. To p u t the matter crudely. The re mai n i ng variatio n is spl it eve n ly between variatio n between nations wit h i n a race a n d va riatio n between one major race a n d a nother. N everthel ess.

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Of all ge netic vari atio n. F o r exam ple. Despite t h e fact that t h ese tra its m ay h ave so m e a d a ptive sign ificance. If the cataclysm were eve n m o re extreme a n d o n ly the Xhosa people o f the southern tip of Africa su rvived.

I nte resti ngly. A nother ge n e. Tru l y o bjective a n alysiS o bjective. Acco rd i n g to Sfo rza. B r ito ns. Saxo n s. J ute s. The ferti l ity rates. Wom e n 's access to educati o n. Co n seq u e ntly. The d ivision of l abor between men and women a n d the d ivision of ea rly tra i n i ng.

In the h istory of women i n the M id d l e Ages there are co n sta nts and changes. The most powerfu l Biology can feed back o n to biology through soci a l d i sti nctions: S i m ply i n terms of p hysica l st re ngth.

The wife's share of the civic rights of her h u sba nd co nti n ues i n fu l l after h is death. Th is is tru e fo r monarchs and peasa nts. I n med ieval town s wo m e n 's n iches we re wide ned i n a variety o f ways.

The h igher the ra nk. Wo me n swear the civic oath and are entered in the register of citizens. I n many civic lega l codes. I n t h is way [th rough i m p roved legal status a n d hered ita ry rights] women ga ined a share of civic freed om.

Afte r 1 If after so me period of resid e n ce a town ado pted a ru n away se rf. B u t a fter He was free. T h e ecosystem w a s greatly h o m oge n ized: I n fact. Braudel n otes t h at eve n civil izati o n s at great d ista n ces from o n e another e. Wo rldwide coo l i ng " tre n d s see m to h ave affl icted t h e fou rte e nth a n d seve ntee nth ce ntu ries. I n deed. I n itself. The poss i b i l ity of a certa i n p hysical a n d biological h istory com m o n to all h u ma n ity b efore the great d i scoveries.

O n e h i storia n suggests t h a t the Vi k i ngs' rou te to Ame rica was cut off by d a ngerou s ice at the time.

Manuel de Landa - A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History

Everyt h i n g moved to its rhyt h m: The n u m b e r o f glaci e rs and ice-floes i ncreased a n d wi nters b ecame more seve re. As we saw. F i rst of all. I n h u m a n-rat-flea com m u n ities a bove gro u nd.

Seco n d ly. T h ere we re, of cou rse, m ixtu res. Some Central Place cities, such as Paris, ho u se d h i e ra rc h ies t h at v i ewed their fo rests as re n ewable resou rces.

F re n ch fo rests we re sta b i l ized in t h e sixteenth a n d seve nteenth centu ries, p a rtly by d ecree th e great o rd i n a n ce of and t h e measu res taken by Col be rt and p a rtly beca u se t h e rem a i n i ng forest soi l s were too poo r to exploit.

I s this a n exa m ple o f the town red u ced t o bare essentials, stri pped of everyth i ng n ot? Ve n ice's entire populatio n l ived outside the "primary sector". Then al ongside, or rather above this l ayer, comes the zone of t he anti-ma rket, where t he great p redato rs roam and the law of t he j u ngle operates.

T h e n they cou ld fight the Sarace n s. It is l i kely that the d isease that affected the Crusade rs the m ost was m a l a ri a. C ru sa d e rs from the Mediterra n e a n. Fi rst, t h e struct u ra l o rga n ization o f n eighboring com m u n ities w a s broken d own by a combi n atio n of wa r ct. Someti mes, no d o u bt, a l ocal pop u l ation s u ffe red total exti nctio n , but t h i s was n ot typica l.

In the rest of the Americas , entire commu nities were instead cultu rally absorbed.

Earlier attempts at colonizing the N ew World had failed partly beca u se of a lack of "predigestive enzymes. Fifty years later, after its initial enco u n ter with Cortes, the Mexican popu lation had decreased to a mere 3 million about one-tenth of the original. Other endemic diseases s u ch as diphtheria and the mumps.

Large animals and loud weapons had, no doubt, a powerful psychological effect on the native population. But after the first encounters, during which the indigenous warriors saw their stone weapons pierce through European armor and horseflesh and witnessed the inefficiency of the Spaniards' inaccurate, single-shot muskets, these cultural advantages would have dissipated. But because the majority of the native inhabitants died from disease, draining the reservoirs of skills and know-how that sustained their culture, that meager advantage sufficed.

Culture certainly played a role here, but it was not the most important. Cultural materials flowed together with genes and biomass not all of it human across the Atlantic, and it was the whole complex mixture that tri umphed.

An entire continent was in this way transformed into a supply region for all three spheres of the European economy: Sugar and other inexpensive foodstuffs for the masses would soon begin flowing in large q uantities from the colonies and plantations to the homeland.

A variety of raw materials to be sold in her markets also flowed home. Finally, an intense flow of si lver and other precious metals provided fuel for European antimarkets and for the European monetary system as a whole. We saw above that while some cities took over alien lands other cities tapped into foreign resources by manipulating markets. Silver rather than infectious diseases played the role of "predigestive enzyme" here.

Thanks in part to the steady flow of metal from American deposits, the European monetary system "was projected over the whole world, a vast net thrown over the wealth of other continents. It was no minor detail that for Europe's gain the treasures of America were exported as far as the Far East, to be converted into local money or ingots in the sixtee n th century.

Europe was beginning to devour, to digest the world. After gaining entry onto foreign soil this way, a massive transfer of people, plants, and animals was necessary to establish a perma n e n t European presence. I n some. Late r o n. Rather it seems m o re pla u s i b l e that i n the time-scal e of evol ution the whole of the ge n e poo l of the bios phere is ava i l a b l e to a l l o rga n isms a n d that the more d ramatic steps and apparent d isconti n u ities in evol utio n a re in fact attri buta ble to ve ry ra re events i nvolving the adoptio n of part or a l l of a foreign gen o m e.

For i n sta nce. As with a ny p hysi c a l system. Socia l Da rwi n is m n atu ra l ly fostered t h e i d e a t h a t t h e Caucasian race was su perior to all others. Acco rd i ng to t h ese a n t h ropol ogists. I n reactio n to t h i s positio n. Of cou rse. D u rh a m agrees t h at t h i s does n ot i nvolve a meta p horical u se of bio logica l co n cepts.

M o re over. Early on. B y virtue o f the i n itially rare LA gen otypes. A s ge nes fo r L A [lactose absorption] were favored a t h igh latitudes. T h e cycle may have started as a co nti n u ation of routine i n fa nt feed i ng practices. I n pa rtic u l a rly rachitoge n ic a reas. Howev e r. S l o pes of forty o r fi fty degrees. T h e refore. O f thes e. Ash ke n azic Jews. I n five sepa rate regi o n s of t h e globe.

The wo rld that witn essed the great m igratory flow of the s. G reeks. This Caucasian ts u n ami began with the starving I rish a n d the ambiti o u s Germans a n d with the B riti s h. H u nga ria ns. Crosby a rgues t h at. When the stockman went out in searc h of his stock.

They were tolerant of open s u n l ight.

E u ropean weeds t h i stles. T h e Old Wo rld q u adrupeds. Austra lia a n d New Zeal a n d. In the mea n time. When the l ivestock retu rned fo r a meal the next seaso n.

A Thousand Years of Nonlinear History

H aving re l atives a b ro a d. Add itio n a l ly. B etwee n and T hey. Eu rope h a d patiently to reconstruct America i n her o w n i mage before it bega n to correspo n d t o her o w n w i s h e s.

If the d i scovery of America bro ught Eu rope l ittle retu rn in the s ho rt ru n. I n fact Eu rope took ce ntu ries to b u i l d a wo rld i n her own i mage across the Atla ntic. Eu rope i n deed seemed i n s ign ificant and i m potent faced with the s u perh u man tas k a head and as yet o n ly i m perfectly perceived. Such a labor of reco n struction was not of cou rse accomp l ished overn ight: Sl ave ry. Access to overseas s u p p l ies. Sugar a lso ge n er ated i nten se p rofits.

T h ere. I n A po rt. The n aval h ospita l m u st therefo re treat. N evert h e less. To t h is exte nt. T h e form a l pol icies had s p read widely in the south.

They sometimes circ u l ated very rapid ly from o ne point to a n other between the They were at wo rk i n seco ndary e d u cation at a very early d ate. The style of a rmy o rga n izati o n that ca me i nto bei ng in H o l l and at the close of the sixteenth ce ntury.

D u ri n g the eighteenth centu ry, the contagio n attai ned a fa r greater range: Official centralized reco rds of ped igrees we re i ntrod uced with the fo u nd i ng of the G e n e ral Stu d Book in and Coates' H erd Book i n The most serious l i m itation has been the grad u a l b u ild-up of a ped igree mystiq u e , i. This has led m a ny breed e rs t o con ce ntrate o n the re p rod uctio n of a ste reotype - the extreme of which ca n be seen i n a n u mbe r of modern d og breeds where the condition has ofte n re su lted i n the i nc i d e n ce at h ig h freq u e ncy of u nd e s i ra ble ge nes.

Although hybrid corn was first i n trod uc ed to far m e rs i n , only a bout one p e rcent of the acreage i n the Corn Belt was p l a n ted to hybrid va rieties by Yie l d s i n c rea sed d ramatical ly; "corn powe r" had a rrived. I n some cases it wou l d wipe out an enti re sta nd of corn in ten days. The new fu ngus moved l i k e wi l d f i re through one co rn field after another. T h e fu n gus moved swiftly t h rough Georgia.

Researchers at or affi l i ated with these l a b o rato rie s gat h e red i n formati on bearing on h u m an hered ity by exa m i n i n g medical reco rds or co n d u cting exte nded fa m i ly stu d ies.

Newa rk's mate rnal morta l ity rate of 1. B y t h e s t h e p ropo rtion o f women breast-feed i ng. As the pe rce ntage of b i rths atte nded by midwives d e c reased from 50 to 15 percent. Without su fficient suckl i n g the mothe r's m i l k d ried u p.

I n the n u rseries.

Conseq ue ntly. I n c reased p hysician atte n d a nce at b i rth did not re sult i n i m p roved outcome fo r mothers a n d ba bie s. Spreaq [of the new pol i cies] to ot h e r co u n tri es occurred re latively rapid ly. M o re speci fica l ly. The p l ague baci l l u s has spread ste ad ily eastwards fro m the west coast and in 1 was fo u n d among a n i mals in the mid-west. Plague was brought by s h i p to the n o rthwest of Ame rica aro u n d 1 W h e n t h e term a ntibiotic was i ntrod uced i n To beg i n with.

T h e p roblem was t hat. The city beca m e. Tod a y. Soon afte r Wo rld Wa r I I. P a radoxical ly. Wo rse yet. As we saw a bove. I n oth e r words. After this. In some cases. C rops in the fiel d m u st fi rst meet the tests of yie l d. And gen es are the keys to meeting each of these ste ps in the food-making process.

A few centu ries ago. There are also non-traditional ways to control human reproductive cycles. Some wars intentionally underequipped types of soldiers to allow them to be cleansed from the gene pool. To this day the military recruiters pray on the young, poor, and those of below average intelligence. While that may sound ultra biased my thesis for that statement are based on my own experiences. I grew up in a poor town and joined the military when I was While I am quite economically successful I have not yet decided where I wanted to move to, and still live in a mobile home I moved into it with a friend a few years ago to cut my living costs back when I was just learning about the web and only making a couple hundred dollars a month.

Earlier this month yet another military recruiter knocked on my door again. While being of about an average intelligence level I literally scored off the charts high on most of the military tests I took when I was 17 even the nuclear power test which should have been a strong indication that the test scales were scaled toward people who are of below average intelligence. Early obstetricians and gynecologists screwed up much worse than midwives by making it easier to spread disease and also by excessively using forceps at birth.

Private enterprise also took other choices from mothers by sneaking in berthing formula while the mother did not know it was being given to the baby. To this day tryptophan is common in birthing formulas but is illegal to download as a supplement.

Few people questioned how shady that was large public outrage is often required to get special interests to yield authority. It was before Hamburg improved sanitation of its water supply. They only did so after a cholera epidemic hit. In many cases consumers are not even informed of which food products are contaminated with the garbage.

Do you really want trust the people who manufacture agent orange when they talk about the effects of chemicals they inject into the food supply? Fox News fired multiple reporters for wanting to air a report about how shady rBGH is. The Meatrix also provides a clip on rBGH.

The nutritional value of a crop is largely ignored in favor of the other "more important" read as more profitable genetic traits.

Improving some of those other genetic traits also comes at the direct cost of lowered nutritional value. As nutrition is removed from the food supply drug companies hook people on garbage prescriptions that treat symptoms of an unbalanced lifestyle with poor nutritional input.

Of course it will not be the fault of drug companies when things go astray. A person that will go out and steal to obtain their drug of choice or cause harm to another At the same time children are medicated with these pills that IMHO wrongfully replace or cover up natural human emotions. Some of these things are blatantly over prescribed by doctors who learned from text books and journals sponsored or funded by self interested drug companies.

But they were both in the same drug family. And the same drug family as the drugs associated with a kid in the Columbine shooting. That drug family was born with the original drug being announced as a wonder drug of the future. Around the time of the release of that drug family a natural supplement that about 15 million people were taking which worked on the same neurotransmitter was banned from the United States On March 22, , the FDA banned the public sale dietary of L-Tryptophan completely.

Manuel Delanda

This ban continues today. On March 26, , Newsweek featured a lead article praising the virtues of the anti-depressant drug Prozac. The action of Prozac and L-Tryptophan are both involved with serotonin, but in totally different ways. L-Tryptophan, the allegedly harmful supplement, is still added to baby formula in the United States to this very day.

To quote the federal government : "At the present time, an import alert remains in force which limits the importation of L-tryptophan into the United States, except if it is intended for an exempted use. FDA has provided for the use of manufactured L-tryptophan for special dietary purposes. Manufactured L-tryptophan is a lawful and essential component of foods, such as infant formulas, enteral products and approved parenteral drug productsShipbuilders o f the Venetian Arsenal: Attractors are indeed remarkable states which minimize free energy, for instance, are rare and unique as are the bifurcations that change one set of attractors into another, such as the special points in intensity temperature at which water changes from liquid to solid or from liquid to gas.

The reason is that smal l firms are the major carriers of i n n ovatio n. I n t h e model proposed by Deleuze and Guattari. On March 26, , Newsweek featured a lead article praising the virtues of the anti-depressant drug Prozac. Like minerals. As the pe rce ntage of b i rths atte nded by midwives d e c reased from 50 to 15 percent. If one then opens a small hole in the wall dividing the compartments, the intensity difference causes the onset of a spontaneous flow of air from one side to the other.

The simplest self-organizing processes seems to be those involving "endogenously-generated stable states", such as states of minimal energy acting as 'attractors' for a process.

DOTTY from Boise
I do love reading novels often . Look over my other articles. I have a variety of hobbies, like northern praying mantis.